HIV AIDS

What is HIV / AIDS?

AIDS is an infectious disease that attacks the immune system. AIDS means Syndrome (a set of symptoms) of Immunodeficiency (which attacks the immune system) Acquired (not hereditary, but caused by a virus). It is caused by a virus called HIV or HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).

HIV is found in all the organic liquids of that person who has the virus: blood, semen, saliva, tears, milk, colostrum, urine, uterine and vaginal secretions and the preseminal fluid. But only blood, preseminal fluid, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk are sufficiently concentrated to produce the transmission.

A person living with HIV is called the person who is found to have had contact with the virus. Sick person is the person in whom diseases caused by the immunodeficiency caused by the virus have been detected. The person living with the virus has no symptoms

Differences between HIV and AIDS

AIDS is an infectious disease that attacks the immune system.

AIDS means Syndrome (a set of symptoms) of Immunodeficiency (which attacks the immune system) Acquired (not hereditary, but caused by a virus). It is caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).

HIV is found in all the organic liquids of that person who has the virus: blood, semen, saliva, tears, milk, colostrum, urine, uterine and vaginal secretions and the preseminal fluid. But only blood, preseminal fluid, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk are sufficiently concentrated to produce the transmission.

A person living with HIV is called the person who is found to have had contact with the virus. Sick person is the person in whom diseases caused by the immunodeficiency caused by the virus have been detected. The person living with the virus has no symptoms.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that affects the body’s defense system, called the immune system. The function of the immune system is to protect the human being from diseases. HIV attacks the cells known as CD4 T lymphocytes, which play a role in alerting the rest of the immune system to the foreign germs entering the body to destroy them.

A person lives with HIV if they have the virus in their body. Living with HIV does not necessarily mean that you have developed symptoms or illnesses, but it is possible to transmit the virus to others.

Transmission Ways

The proven routes of transmission are few and well defined:

– Unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex, heterosexual or homosexual intercourse. The passage of the virus in sexual intercourse is through the microscopic lesions or injuries that occur during penetration and other sexual practices, whereby the fluids of the virus enters the body of the couple. 3 out of 4 cases of transmission are sexually transmitted. 90% of these cases correspond to heterosexual exposure. Oral sex is a practice of risk to the mouth. It is also advisable to protect both to prevent the transmission of other infections. There is more probability of transmission from man to woman than in the opposite way, which does not authorize to disregard this risk.

– Blood, for sharing syringes for the use of drugs or any other sharp or stabbing, or through uncontrolled blood transfusion.

– Perinatal transmission, from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Mother – to – child transmission raises the main mechanism of HIV transmission for children. Failing to receive adequate medical care, an HIV positive mother has a three-fold chance of giving birth to an infected child. With medical care, the risk of transmission of the virus to the baby is almost nil.

How NOT to broadcast?

As important as knowing how the virus is transmitted is knowing what behaviors or practices do not. Having sex using condoms, sneezing, mosquito bites, sharing dishes or hygienic services, waxing, do not transmit the virus. Saliva, tears, sweat, air and water, as well as food are not transmission vehicles. Nor are they practicing sports, kissing, hugging, shaking hands, playing, working or studying, bathing in showers or swimming pools, and exchanging clothes with people living with HIV. Whoever receives a properly controlled blood transfusion is safe. The National AIDS Law No. 23798, requires the control of all blood to transfuse. Any procedure that includes risk of cutting or puncture (puncture), must be made with disposable or sterilized material.

How to prevent it

– Use condoms: It does not matter that you use other effective contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies like pills, injections or patches. The only way to protect yourself from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is to use condoms every time you have sex. For protection to be effective you have to use it correctly and consistently every time you have sex.

– Avoid contact with blood: To avoid transmission of HIV through the blood, it is necessary not to exchange or share needles and syringes. In the case of injecting drugs, use a new syringe at a time. It is also suggested to control that any procedure that includes a cut or puncture (puncture) is made with disposable or sterilized material, such as dentist, manicure, tattoos or medical practices, among others.

– Control your pregnancy: To avoid transmission of the virus from the mother to the baby, it is recommended that every pregnant woman is tested for HIV with the first control of her pregnancy. If the result is positive, the pregnant woman should follow the medical indications and apply the measures of care to avoid transmission to the baby: control and clinical treatment and suspension of breastfeeding. Thus, the chances of transmitting the virus to the baby are almost nil.

– Get tested for HIV: The only way to know if someone got HIV is through a lab test. Many people living with HIV are healthy and do not know they have it, so it is important that you do the test.

HIV test

The HIV test is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies to HIV. This test is called an ELISA and since it is not specific for HIV infection, its result should be confirmed with another test called Western Blot.

The human body produces antibodies to fight disease. In the case of HIV, the presence of antibodies shows that a person is infected, that is, that the virus is present in his body and that, if he does not take the necessary precautions, he can transmit it to other people. A person living with HIV may not have any symptoms. Being infected is not the same as having AIDS.

Therefore, getting an HIV test is important to know if you are infected, and if so, keep in mind that you can transmit the virus to others. It is also important to receive medical help, as there are treatments with different drugs to delay the development of the disease and improve the quality of life. And finally, to avoid transmission to the baby in case of pregnancy.

HIV testing is confidential, fast, simple and free in all public hospitals.

A positive result means:

You find HIV antibodies in your blood. That you have the HIV virus. It does not mean you have AIDS. You can infect another person if you have unprotected sex (without a condom) or by direct blood contact. That you should always protect yourself in your sexual relations so as not to risk re-infection. This means that you should avoid getting HIV back into your body, since that increases the chance of getting AIDS. That you can continue with your daily activities. That in case of getting pregnant and not receiving the proper medical care, you can transmit the virus to your baby before birth, during childbirth or breast feeding. If you do not receive medical care during pregnancy or at the time of delivery, one in three babies born to an infected woman may develop AIDS.

A negative result means:

Depending on the type of tests used (rapid tests, Elisa 3rd or 4th generation) antibodies to HIV take between 3 to 4 weeks from the time of infection to be detected. That is to say, during this time (called “period window”) the analyzes can be negative although the person has the virus. That is why when there was a concrete situation of risk, although the result of the first analysis is negative it is recommended to repeat it at the month of the first sample. Some people who have frequent risk situations may benefit from repeated testing periodically (eg every 6 months).

Whatever your outcome:

Do not have sex without condoms. Protecting means preventing blood, semen, semen, or vaginal fluid from entering your body. Protecting yourself also means not letting your preseminal fluid, semen, blood or vaginal fluid enter into the body of another person. Do not give blood if you could have been in contact with HIV. If you use drugs, do not share syringes or needles.

Legislation

Law 23,798, called the National AIDS Act of Argentina (sanctioned in 1990 and regulated in 1991) establishes the requirement of informed consent and reiterates confidentiality regarding the test and its results. In 1995, Law 24,455 was approved, which establishes the obligation for Social Works to offer medical, psychological and pharmacological treatment to people with HIV. In 1996, Law 24,754 incorporated the care of people with HIV by prepaid medicine companies.

Since 2011, a new Law of Medicine Pepaga Law 26,682 has been in force, stipulating that “pre-existing diseases can only be established from the user’s affidavit and can not be a criterion of denial of admission of users.”

This law gives rise to a series of basic principles that must be respected by the entire population. These are:

– Informed consent. It involves giving the patient information about the diagnosis, risks and benefits of treatment and therapeutic alternatives in an understandable way so that he can decide whether or not to undergo medical practice. In the case of HIV testing, the patient must sign such authorization prior to blood collection.

– Confidentiality. It is the obligation to keep or not reveal the information obtained in a relationship of trust. This obligation reaches all members of the health team and anyone who knows a person who has the virus.

– Truthfulness. It is the obligation to tell the truth and not lie or cheat as to information about a person’s health status. At the same time, to receive the information is necessary to have the appropriate containment.

– Discrimination. Discrimination consists in the diversity of treatment in terms of the rights given to a particular group, in this case, to people living with HIV. The Antidiscrimination Act No. 23,592 prohibits any form of discrimination, thus including any practice of arbitrary exclusion of persons living with the virus.

– Access to health care. It forces social work and prepaid medicine to provide medical, pharmacological and psychological treatment to people living with HIV. For those people who do not have social or prepaid work is the State, through public hospitals, who will provide the necessary care as well as the provision of medicines.

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